Billon Jital of Shamsuddin Iltutmish– Slave Dynasty





Al-Duniya wa Al-Din




अल-दुनिया व अल-दिन




الدنیا والدین




Sun of the World and Faith


The Sultan

विश्व और धर्म का शम्स



دنیا اور دین کا آفتاب





Shri Hamirah

श्री हमीर:

شری ہمیرہ


Shri Amir

श्री अमीर

شری امیر



The Sultanate of Delhi

After the death of Muhammad bin Sam (Ghori) in 1206 AD, Qutubuddin Aibak, an erstwhile slave of Muhammad and governor of Delhi, had now proclaimed himself ruler of Hindustan. Following his death, five unrelated dynasties ruled over the next three hundred years: Mamluk or Slave dynasty (1206–1290), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).

At its peak under, the empire encompassed the majority of the Indian Subcontinent, stretching from Peshawar in the north to Madurai in the south and Lakhnauti in the east to Sehwan in the west.

Shamsuddin Iltutmish

Shamsuddin Iltutmish (reigned: 1210-1236) is considered the effective founder of the Delhi Sultanate. After the death of Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish defeated his son and established himself at Delhi. After consolidating his rule by defeating the other former Ghorid slaves, he sought confirmation of his title from the Caliph in Baghdad. He was officially recognised as the Sultan of India by the Caliph's envoy, who arrived bearing an honour robe.

Iltutmish oversaw a series of victories during the following years, including the suppression of a rebellion in Bengal, the conquest of Gwalior, raids on the Paramara-controlled towns of Bhilsa and Ujjain in central India, and the expulsion of Khwarazmian subordinates from the north-west. Additionally, his soldiers assaulted and pillaged the Kalinjar region under Chandela rule.[i]

Iltutmish set up the Sultanate's government, establishing the groundwork for eventual hegemony over northern India.

The coin

Iltutmish established the coinage of the Delhi Sultanate in its definitive form, combing Islamic numismatic conventions with local Indian traditions.[ii] It is important to note that no coins bearing Qutubuddin Aibak’s name have been found, rather he most likely issued coins in the name of Ghori.

Similar to the previous coin of Muhammad bin Sam, this coin is a jital. At this time, the major mints were Delhi, Budaun and Lahore; this coin is of Lahore mint.

The obverse presents Iltutmish’s name and title. On various coins, Iltutmish’s name is spelled in four different ways: Iltutmish, Altutmish, Altamash and Iltamash.

Although it features the same horseman design typical of early Delhi Sultanate jitals, the rider’s body is replaced by a star here. Above the horseman, the Nagari inscription reads ‘Sri Hamirah’ (The Amir).[iii]

[i] Goenka, S. G. (2022). The Coins of the Indian Sultanates: Covering the Areas of Present Day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. New Delhi: Manoharlal Publishers & Distributors.

[ii] Brown, C. J. (1980). The Heritage of India Series: The Coins of India. University of Toronto Library.

[iii] Lane-Poole, S. (1884). The Coins of the Sultans of Delhi in the British Museum. London: Order of the Trustees.